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The study also found that both autonomy and relatedness are profoundly influenced by the psychological control tactics used by their parents. “Psychological control includes tactics like ignoring kids or making them feel guilty if they don’t think or behave a certain way,” Oudekerk says. “These are tactics that really undermine kids’ abilities to think through their actions and decisions to see if they’re actually good for them.” It doesn’t mean these youth are utterly incapable of social interactions but that the resulting relationships are less healthy. “You might learn to stick up for yourself eventually, but might still think that in close relationships you have to be cold or dismissive of others in order to stick up for yourself.” Teens who experienced psychological control early in adolescence had lower levels of autonomy and relatedness, and the levels got progressively worse over time. The adults so fond of dismissing difficult teens might miss the irony that this is a distrusting and non-collaborative approach to their development.